هذا مقال باللغة الانجليزية عن الحضارة Civilization, سوف يفيدك ذلك المقال بالتحدث و الكتابة, سواء كان المقال فرضا منزليا بفصل اللغة الانجليزية او امتحانا او اختبارا فان ذلك المقال التوبيك سوف يفيدك بكتاب موضوع انشائي رائع بالانجليزية.
Civilization or civilisation is a sometimes controversial term that has been used in several related ways. Primarily, the term has been used to refer to the material and instrumental side of human cultures that are complex in terms of technology, science, and division of labor. Such civilizations are generally hierarchical and urbanized. In a classical con********, people were called “civilized” to set them apart from barbarians, while in a modern-day con********, “civilized peoples” have been contrasted with primitive peoples.
There is a tendency to use the term in a less strict way, to mean approximately the same thing as “culture” and therefore, the term can more broadly refer to any important and clearly defined human society. Still, even when used in this second sense, the word is often restricted to apply only to societies that have attained a particular level of advancement-especially the founding of cities.
The level of advancement of a civilization is often measured by its progress in agriculture, long-distance trade, occupational specialization, a special governing class and urbanism. Aside from these core elements, a civilization is often marked by any combination of a number of secondary elements, including a developed transportation system, writing, standardized measurement, currency, contractual and tort-based legal systems, characteristic art and architecture, mathematics, enhanced scientific understanding, *******llurgy, political structures, and an astronomical understanding.